How Recycling Works
LETTER TO THE EDITOR
Ekoloji 28(108): 2537-2542 (2019)
How Recycling Works: A Study on the University Course with
VR to Enhance the Attitude of Environmental Consciousness
Min-Ping Wu 1, Sheng-Wen Hsieh 2*, Ming-Chia Hsieh 2
1 Department of Food and Beverage Management, Far East University, Tainan City 744, Taiwan
2 Department of Marketing and Logistics Management, Far East University, Tainan City 744, Taiwan
*Corresponding author: Email: [email protected]
Abstract: This paper is purposed to explore the influence on college students’ environmental education learning
performance and attitude of environmental consciousness with the teaching material of Virtual Reality (VR) infused
into university course. This study is themed with environmental protection recycling helpful for students to
understand some issues such as re-application of incinerator bottom slag, the recycling of kitchen wastes and large
furniture and biogas recovery. VR teaching provides students with a 360-degree observation range and direct
participation in environmental education available for students to watch, freely explore and observe the fields
inaccessible to traditional environmental education (such as incinerators, kitchen wastes and the control areas of
power plants, etc.). This paper is also meant to explore whether there was any significant difference on the learning
performance of environment education and environmental consciousness between VR and traditional teaching ways
among students with different Cognitive Styles (CS).
1 Introduction
Kirk (1980) contended conservation education included the conservation/nature study movement and
the camping/outdoor education movement which were the major components of the American education
system and the roots of today’s environmental education. Environmental problems such as air, water and
soil pollution caused by rapid industrial development and human deviated behaviors had made humans start
to truly care about the global environment. Environmental education became a growing concern from
human beings (Palmer, 1998). Through the promotion of environmental education in schools, the basic
literacy of knowledge, skills and affection for environmental protection should be established. It was meant
to enhance students’ environmental consciousness and sensitivity and enrich the knowledge about
sustainable environment allowing students to understand humanenvironmental interactions with correct
values. When facing the issues of regional or global environment, they could be vested with the knowledge
and skills to improve or solve environmental problems, cultivate environmental action experience and
become an environmentally literate citizen as the focus to promote environmental education in schools.
The obstacles arisen from the implementation of environmental education in schools could be divided
into four barriers: conceptual barriers, logistical barriers, educational barriers and attitudinal barriers (Ham
& Sewing, 1988). Conceptual barriers meant the scope and content of environmental education. It was
misunderstood that environmental education was only related to science or was equivalent to outdoor
education. Logistical barriers meant the obstacles against environmental education support such as the
concerns of lacking time, fund, resources, appropriate class size, textbooks, and attitude of principals, traffic
issues, access to outdoor venues, safety issues and responsibilities. Educational barriers meant teachers
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